The scientific diversity of researchers doing work related to dyslexia has broadened during the last few years and, therefore, relevant information is being generated from a wide spectrum of research areas.

Research reports on dyslexia are now being published from fields such as linguistics, education, genetics, neuroanatomy, and visual and auditory processing. Thus, we are quickly learning more about phonological processing in dyslexics; the etiology including genetic basis of differences in dyslexics in multiple neural systems involved in information processing.

IDA is an active participant in the support of research related to developmental dyslexia. One primary goal of IDA is to foster multidisciplinary research projects on dyslexia so that we can learn more about etiology, neural differences, early detection methods, and the value of simultaneous multisensory structured education approaches. Ultimately, we want to foster methods that enable dyslexic children to learn as efficiently as possible.

Research Articles, Books, and Resources




Fletcher, J.M., Fuchs, L.S., Barnes, M.A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: Guilford Press

Lyon, G. R. (1995). Research initiatives in learning disabilities: Contributions from scientists supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, S120-126.

Rayner, K., Foorman, B. R., Perfetti, C. A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg M. S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science, 2(2 Suppl), 31-74.

Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Wolf, M. (2008). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Publishers. (Hardcover edition published 2007 by Harper Publishers).



Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuch, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning Disabilities: From Identification to Intervention. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Lyon, G.R., Shaywitz, S.E., & Shaywitz, B.A. (2003). Defining dyslexia, comorbidity, teachers’ knowledge of Language and Reading: A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1-14.



Goswami, U. (2002). Phonology, reading development and dyslexia: A cross-linguistic perspective. Annals of Dyslexia. 52, 141-163.

Goulandris, N. (Ed.). (2002). Dyslexia in Different Languages. London, UK: Whurr Publishers.

Leong, C. K., & Joshi, R. M. (Eds.). (1997). Cross-Language Studies of Learning to Read and Spell. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Lundberg, I. (2002). Second language learning and reading with the additional load of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia. 52, 165-187.

Paulesu, E., Démonet, J. F., Fazio, F., McCrory, E., Chanoine, V., Brunswick, N., Cappa, S. F., Cossu, G., Habib, M., Frith, C. D., & Frith, U. (2001). Dyslexia: Cultural diversity and biological unity. Science, 291, 2165-2167.

Siok, W. T., Perfetti, C. A., Jin, Z., & Tan, L. H. (2004). Biological abnormality of impaired reading is constrained by culture. Nature, 431(7004), 71-76.



Alarcon, et al. (1995). Etiology of individual differences in reading performance: A test of sex limitation. Behavioral Genetics, 25, 17-23.

Katusic, S. K., Colligan, R. C., Barbaresi, W. J., Schaid, D. J., & Jacobsen, S. J. (2001). Incidence of reading disability in a population-based birth cohort, 1976-1982, Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76(11), 1075-1077.

Liederman, et al. (1995). The sex ratios of families with a neurodevelopmentally disordered child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 511-517.

Rutter, M., Caspi, A., Fergusson, D., Horwood, L. J., Goodman, R., Maughan, B., et al. (2004). Sex Differences in Developmental Reading Disability: New Findings From 4 Epidemiological Studies. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(16), 2007-2012.

Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Escobar, M. D. (1990). Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls: Results of the Connecticut Longitudinal Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264(8), 998-1002.



Alexander, A. W., & Slinger-Constant, A. M. (2004). Current status of treatments for dyslexia: Critical review. Journal of Child Neurology, 19(10), 744-758.

Lovett, M. W., Barron, R.W., Benson, N.J. (2003). Effective remediation of word identification and decoding difficulties in school-age children with reading disabilities. In H. Lee Swanson, Karen Harris, & Steve Graham (Eds), Handbook of Learning Disabilities. New York: Guilford Publications.

Lovett, M. W., De Palma, M., Frijters, J. C., Steinbach, K. A., Temple, M., Benson, N. J., et al. (2008). Interventions for reading difficulties: A comparison of response to intervention by ELL and EFL struggling readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 333-352.

Lovett, M.W., Lacerenza, L., Borden, S.L., Frijters, J.C., Seteinbach, K.A., & DePalma, M. (2000). Components of effective remediation for developmental reading disabilities: combining phonological and strategy-based instruction to improve outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 263-283.

Mathes, P. G., Denton, C. A., Fletcher, J. M., Anthony, J. L., Francis, D. J., & Schatschneider, C. (2005). The effects of theoretically different instruction and student characteristics on the skills of struggling readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 40, 148–182.

Scanlon, D.M., Vellutino, F.R., Small, S.G., Fanuele, D.P., & Sweeney, J.M. (2005). Severe reading difficulties–Can they be prevented? A comparison of prevention and intervention approaches. Exceptionality, 13(4), 209-227.

Scammaca, N., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., Wanzek, J., &Torgesen, J. K. (2007). Extensive reading interventions in grades k– 3: From research to practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.

Shaywitz, S., Morris, R., & Shaywitz, B. (2008). The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 451-475.

Torgesen, J.K. (2004). Lessons Learned From the Last 20 Years of Research on Interventions for Students who Experience Difficulty Learning to Read. In McCardle, P. & Chhabra, V. (Eds.) The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Torgesen, J.K. (2005). Recent discoveries from research on remedial interventions for children with dyslexia. In M. Snowling and C. Hulme (Eds.). The Science of Reading. (pp. 521-537). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers

Torgesen, J.K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R.K., Rashotte, C.A., Voeller, K., Conway, T. & Rose, E. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Sipay, E. R., Small S. G., Pratt, A., Chen R., & Denckla, M. B. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult-to-remediate and readily remedeated poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 601-638.



Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Assessing intervention responsiveness: Conceptual and technical issues. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 172-186.

Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P. L., & Young, C. L. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications for the learning disabilities construct. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 157-171.

Vaughn, S., & Fuchs, L. S. (2003). Redefining learning disabilities as inadequate response to instruction: The promis and potential problems. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18(3), 137-146.

Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., & Hickman, P. (2003). Response to instruction as a means of identifying students with reading/learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 69, 391-409.

Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., Woodruff, A. L., & Linan-Thompson, S. (2007). A three-tier model for preventing reading difficulties and early identification of students with reading disabilities. In D. Haager, J. Klingner & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Evidence-Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention (pp. 11-28). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Small, S., & Fanuele, D. P. (2006). Response to intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between children with and without reading disabilities: Evidence for the role of kindergarten and first grade intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2), 157-169.



Ehri, L.C. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp and P. Tomlinson (Eds.) Learning and teaching reading. London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M.K., & Jenkins, J.R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256.

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702–714.

Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310-321.

Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, 283-306.

Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Alexander, A. (2001). Principles of fluency instruction in reading: Relationships with established empirical outcomes. In M. Wolf (Ed.), Dyslexia, Fluency, and the Brain. Parkton, MD: York Press.



Moats, L. C. (1995). Spelling: Development, Disability, and Instruction. Baltimore, MD: York Press.

Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to Spell. New York: Oxford University Press.

Treiman, R. (1998). Why spelling? The benefits of incorporating spelling into beginning reading instruction. In J. L. Metsala & L. C. Ehri (Eds.), Word Recognition in Beginning Literacy (pp. 289-313), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Treiman, R. (2006). Knowledge about letters as a foundation for reading and spelling. In R. M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of Orthography and Literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Venezky, R. (1999). The American Way of Spelling. New York: Guilford Press.



Aaron, P. G., Malatesha Joshi, R., & Quatroche, D. (2008). Becoming a Professional Reading Teacher: What to Teach, How to Teach, Why it Matters. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Fry, E. B., & Kress, J. E. (2006). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists (5 ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gaskins, I. W. (2005). Success with Struggling Readers: The Benchmark School Approach. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Haager, D., Klingner, J. K., & Vaughn, S. (2008). Evidence-Based Reading Practices for Response to Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.

Klinger, J., Vaughn, S., & Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., Benson, N. J., Steinbach, K. A., & Frijters, J. C. (2008). Preparing teachers to remediate reading disabilities in high school: What is needed for effective professional development? Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(4), 1083-1097.

Moats, L. (2000). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Pressley, M. (2006). Reading Instruction that Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching (Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy) (3 ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Pressley, M., Allington, R. L., Wharton-McDonald, R., Block, C. C., & Morrow, L. M. (2001). Learning to Read: Lessons from Exemplary first grade classrooms. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.



Cope, N., Harold, D., Hill, G., Moskvina, V., Stevenson, J., Holmans, P., et al. (2005). Strong evidence that KIAA0319 on chromosome 6p is a susceptibility gene for developmental dyslexia. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(4), 581-591.

Fisher, S. E., & DeFries, J. C. (2002). Developmental dyslexia: Genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 767-780.

Fisher, S. E., & Francks, C. (2006). Genes, cognition and dyslexia: Learning to read the genome. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 250-257.

Meaburn, E. L., Harlaar, N., Craig, I. W., Schalkwyk, L. C., & Plomin, R. (2008). Quantitative trait locus association scan of early reading disability and ability using pooled DNA and 100K SNP microarrays in a sample of 5760 children. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 729-740.

Meng, H., Smith, S. D., Hager, K., Held, M., Liu, J., Olson, R. K., et al. (2007). DCDC2 is associated with reading disablity and modulates neuronal development in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(47), 17053-17058.

Paracchini, S., Scerri, T., & Monaco, A. P. (2007). The genetic lexicon of dyslexia. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 8, 57-79.

Paracchini, S., Steer, C. D., Buckingham, L.-L., Morris, A. P., Ring, S., Scerri, T., et al. (2008). Association of the KIAA0319 dyslexia susceptibility gene with reading skills in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07121872.

Pennington, B. F. (1995). Genetics of Learning Disabilities. Journal of Child Neurology, 10, S69-77.

Pennington, B. F. (1999). Toward an integrated understanding of dyslexia: Genetic, neurological, and cognitive mechanisms. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 629-654.

Plomin, R., & Kovas, Y. (2005). Generalist genes and learning disabilities. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 592-617.

Thapar, A., Langley, K., O’Donovan, M. C., & Owen, M. (2006). Refining the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder phenotype for molecular genetic studies. Molecular Psychiatry, 11, 714-720.

Williams, J., & O’Donovan, M. C. (2006). The genetics of developmental dyslexia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 681-689.



Eden, G. F., Jones, K. M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F. B., Zeffiro, T. A., et al. (2004). Neural changes following remediation in adult developmental dyslexia. Neuron, 44(3), 411-422.

Eden: G. F., & Moats, L. (2002). The role of neuroscience in the Remediation of students with dyslexia. National Neuroscience, 5(Suppl), 1080-1084.

Eden, G. F., & Zeffiro, T. A. (1998). Neural systems affected in developmental dyslexia revealed by functional neuroimaging. Neuron, 21(2), 279-282.

Helenius, P., Salmelin, R., Service, E., Connolly, J. F., Leinonen, S., & Lyytinen, H. (2002). Cortical activation during spoken-word segmentation in nonreading-impaired and dyslexic adults. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(7), 2936-2944.

Leonard, C. M., Eckert, M. A., Given, B. K., Berninger, V. W., & Eden, G. F. (2006). Individual differences in anatomy predict reading and oral language deficits. Brain, 129(Pt 12), 3329-3342.

Maisog, J. M., Einbinder, E. R., Flowers, D. L., Turkeltaub, P. E., & Eden, G. F. (2008). A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of dyslexia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1145, 237-259.

Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L. Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126(Pt 4), 841-865.

Renvall, H., & Hari, R. (2002). Auditory cortical responses to speech-like stimuli in dyslexic adults. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(5), 757-768.

Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., Constable, R. T., Marchione, K. E., Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., & Gore, J. C. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 52(2), 101-110.

Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: The neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1329-1349.

Virsu, V., Lahti-Nuuttila, P., & Laasonen, M. (2003). Crossmodal Temporal processing acuity impairment aggravates with age in developmental dyslexia. Neuroscience Letters, 336(3), 151-154



Brady, S. (1997). Ability to encode phonological representations: An underlying difficulty of poor readers. In B.A. Blachman (Ed.) Foundations of Reading Acquisition and Dyslexia. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Catts, H. W., Fey, M., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (2001). Estimating the risk of future reading difficulties in kindergarten: A research-based model and its clinical implication. Language, Speech, & Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 38-50.

Elbro, C., Borstrom, I., & Petersen, D.K. (1998). Predicting dyslexia from kindergarten: The importance of distinctiveness of phonological representations of lexical items. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 36-60.

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Scarborough, H. (1998). Predicting the future achievement of second graders with reading disabilities: Contributions of phonemic awareness, verbal memory, rapid naming, and IQ. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 115-136.

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Hari, R., & Renvall, H. (2001). Impaired processing of rapid stimulus sequences in dyslexia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(12), 525-532.

Heiervang, E., Stevenson, J., & Hugdahl, K. (2002). Auditory processing in children with dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 931-938.

Helenius, P., Salmelin, R., Richardson, U., Leinonen, S., & Lyytinen, H. (2002). Abnormal auditory cortical activation in dyslexia 100 msec after speech onset. Journal of Neuroscience, 14(4), 603-617.

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Research Projects Funded by IDA


Early Intervention for Infants at Risk for Dyslexia (2006/2007)

Marie Cheour, Ph.D., University of Miami


A Deletion in Intron 2 of DCDC2 Regulates Protein Expression in Developmental Dyslexia (2006/2007)

Haiying Meng, M.D., Ph.D., Yale Child Health Research Center, New Haven, CT


Why do Dyslexics do Poorly at Perceptual Tasks? (2005/2006)

Dr. Veronica Edwards, Dr. John Hogben and Mr. Neil Roach (Ph.D. Candidate), University of Western Australia


Understanding Dyslexics: Who are the Treatment Resisters? (2005/2006)

Dr. Linda S. Siegel and Dr. Orly Lipka, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada


Brain Activity Patterns in Dyslexic and Normal Readers During a Non-word Rhyme Task: A Magnetoencephalography Study (2004/2005)

Janet McGraw Fisher, M.A., Boston University


Dyslexia in Chinese (2003/2004)

Dr. Yin Wengang, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China; Dr. Weng Xuchu, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China; Brendan Weekes, Ph.D., School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK


Reading Comprehension in Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (2002/2003)

Disorder: The Effects of Working Memory, Inattention, and Linguistic Processing on Literal and Inferential Comprehension; Rosemary Tannock, Ph.D., The Hospital for Sick Children; Karen Ghelani, M.A., Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto


Lexical and Morphological Effects in Italian Developmental Dyslexia (2002/2003)

Cristina Burani, Ph.D., Institute for Cognitive Sciences of the National Research Council and Technologies, Rome, Italy; Professor Pierluigi Zoccolotti, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy


Reading Disability, ADHD, and Conduct Disorders in Twins: Common and Specific Genetic Risk Factors (2001/2002)

Dr. Laura Baker, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA


The Nature of Specific Processing Deficits Underlying Dyslexia: Temporal Mechanisms and Developmental Comparisons of Auditory Gap Detection (2001/2002)

Dr. Nancy J. Benson, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada and Dr. Stanley J. Hamstra, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada



Study of “Pure” Fluency: Comparing Fluent and Dysfluent Readers without the Confounding Effects of Decoding Problems (2000/2001)

Dr. Leonard Katz, Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA and Dr. Elena L. Grigorenko, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA



Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Cross-Modal Processing in Dyslexia (2000/2001)

Dr. Russell Poldrack, Massachusetts General Hospital, NMR Center, Charlestown, MA, USA



International Perspectives on Dyslexia (2000/2001)

Dr. Susan A. Vogel, Northern Illinois University, Literacy Education Dept., DeKalb, IL, USA and Dr. Stephen Reder, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA



The Influence of Morphological Structure on the Word Reading of Children with and without Reading Disabilities (1999/2000)

Dr. Joanne F. Carlisle, Northwestern University, School of Education, Comm. Disorders Clinic, Evanston, IL, USA and Dr. C. Addison Stone, Northwestern University, School of Speech, Evanston, IL, USA



A Family Study of Reading Achievement in Russia(1998/1999)

Dr. Elena L. Grigorenko, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA



Evaluating the Effects of an Intervention Program on the Language & Reading Abilities of Children with Language Learning Impairments (1998/1999)

Dr. Diane Frome Loeb, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA


The Relationship between Growth Rates in Precursor Literacy Skills and Word Recognition and Spelling Growth Rates in Young Children with Reading Disabilities (1997/1998)

Dr. Donald L. Compton, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA



Functional MRI Studies of the Pathophysiology of Dyslexia (1997/1998)

Dr. Guinevere Eden, Georgetown University Medical Center, Dept. of Neuroscience, Washington, DC, USA



Dyslexia and Visual-Spatial Talents (1997/1998)

Prof. Ellen Winner, Boston College, Boston, MA, USA



Cerebral Asymmetry and Reading Development (1997/1998)

Dr. Christiana M. Leonard, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA and Dr. Linda J. Lombardino, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA



The Duncan 3 Phase Screening Program (1997/1998)

Yvea E. Duncan, University of Texas, Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA


Neuroanatomical Analysis of the Cerebellum in Dyslexia (1996/1997)

Dr. Rod I. Nicholson, University of Sheffield, Dept. of Psychology, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom and Dr. Angela J. Fawcett, University of Sheffield, Dept. of Psychology, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom



The Affect of Impaired Magnocellular Function on Children’s Reading (1996/1997)

Dr. Piers L. Cornelissen, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, England, United Kingdom



The Role of Orthographic Redundancy in Explaining Reading Difficulties in Children (1996/1997)

Dr. Donald L. Compton, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA



Localizing Deficits in Early Visual Processing Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (1996/1997)

Mr. David J. Heeger, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA



A Genetic Linkage Study of Specific Reading Disability (1996/1997)

Dr. David L. Pauls, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA



Investigating the Nature and Prevalence of Visual Deficits in Dyslexic Readers (1996/1997)

Dr. Christopher H. Chase, Hampshire College, Amherst, MA, USA and Dr. Stacy L. Birch, Hampshire College, Amherst, MA, USA